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Education Report Writings Tech

Technical Report Sample

This is a technical report sample. Here is the details report on a deep learning-based project collected from https://github.com. This is not the main project but it is a standard template for showing your project report. You can edit as you want it. Thank you.

Technical Report Sample on ANN:

Abstract

With the help of sensor data collected from a mobile or other devices, a neural network can guess patterns on the data and predict any activity anyone done. Today, it is one of the most demanding sites of artificial intelligence. Moreover, collecting human activity data through sensors, one can implement it to a bot. Raw data collected from different sensors of a mobile, smartwatch and other sensors active device enhance the classification of human activities with machine learning algorithms. In this paper, I observed a model on its mile activity recognition, usually the motion sensors, such as accelerometer and gyroscope. The performance of the model is great; however, I have tried to tune the model and observed the changes one by one. Hence, the model validation accuracy is 97.98 % and precision is 95%. This was achieved from the data learning from a cellphone attached to the waist. LSTM model has been used for this purpose to learn the sequence of data.

Table of Contents

Abstract

Table of Contents

List of Figures

1 Introduction

2       Background

3       Datasets

4       Methodology

5       Results and discussion

6       Conclusions and recommendations

7       Acknowledgments

8       References.

Appendix A: Place the title of appendix here

List of Figures

1.            Different Activity Related Sensor Data                    

2.            Model Summary                                                              

3.            Model Accuracy                                                               

4.            Model loss                                                                         

1       Introduction

Artificial Neural Network with a validation accuracy of 97.98 % and a precision of 95% was achieved from the data to learn (as a cellphone attached on the waist) to recognize the type of activity that the user is doing. My work is inspired by Guillaume-chevalier/LSTM-Human-Activity-Recognition but he used RNN-LSTM to recognize the activity whereas I used ANN for the same. And had achieved a better confusion matrix as well as the validation accuracy than the RNN-LSTM. Bidirectional LSTM on the other hand gave around 94 % but which is still less. The above VALIDATION ACCURACY is also best on KAGGLE. The approach might be a little different.

2       Background

There are much research has been done over the years. I review some of them for learning the background of my task.

Paniagua et al. describe different sensors like accelerometer, magnetic field, and air pressure meter equipped by mobile, which can help in the operation of the evoking context of the user like location, situation, etc. Moreover, processing the evoked sensor data is generally a resource-hungry task, which can be uploaded to the public cloud storage from mobile devices. This paper specifically targets at evoking useful information from the accelerometer sensor data. The paper defines the usages of parallel computing using Map Reduce on the cloud for training and recognizing human activities based on machine learning classifiers that can scale in performance and accuracy easily. The sensor data is collected from the mobile devices, uploaded to the cloud and processed using different classification algorithms such as Iterative Dichotomizer 3, Naive Bayes Classifier, and K-Nearest-Neighbors. The guessed activities can be used in mobile applications like this paper model Zompopo that utilizes the data in creating an intelligent calendar [1].

On the other hand, human exercises are inalienably interpretation invariant and various levels. Human action acknowledgment (HAR), a field that has earned a great deal of consideration as of late because of its appeal in different application spaces, utilizes time-arrangement sensor information to construe exercises. In this paper, a profound convolutional neural system (convnet) is proposed to perform productive and powerful HAR utilizing cell phone sensors by abusing the innate attributes of exercises and 1D time-arrangement signals, simultaneously giving an approach to naturally and information adaptively remove vigorous highlights from crude information. Analyses show that convnets to sure determine applicable and progressively complex highlights with each extra layer, even though the distinction of highlight multifaceted nature level abatements with each extra layer.

Moreover, A more extensive time length of transient nearby connection can be abused (1 × 9-1 × 14) and a low pooling size (1 × 2-1 × 3) is demonstrated to be useful. Convnets likewise accomplished a practically ideal order on moving exercises, particularly fundamentally the same as ones that were recently seen to be extremely hard to characterize. In conclusion, convnets beat other best in class information-digging strategies in HAR for the benchmark dataset gathered from 30 volunteer subjects, accomplishing a general presentation of 94.79% on the test set with crude sensor information, and 95.75% with extra data of worldly quick Fourier change of the HAR informational index [2].

3       Dataset

The mobile sensor signals such as accelerometer and gyroscope were pre-processed by using noise filters and then crated samples in fixed-width sliding windows of 2.56 sec and 50% overlap. The mobile sensor acceleration signal having gravitational and body motion components were separated using a Butterworth low-pass filter into body acceleration and gravity. The G-force is adopted to have only low-frequency components, whereas a filter with 0.3 Hz cutoff frequency has been used. From each window, a vector of features was obtained by computing variables from the time and frequency domain [3].

Figure 1: Different Activity Related Sensor Data

View More Technical Report Sample on ANN or Software Engineering Here!

4       Methodology

For feature selection, “extra tree classifier has been used with and I1 selection, but the results were somewhat better with all features only when manually tune the hyperparameters of the model to its almost utmost level which took some time. Though having fewer features will also take less time to train, but in this case, manual selection of features regarding circumstance can’t be done and the other techniques” [4].

The model design is as well as could be expected and concocted after continued tuning and changes in network architecture. By taking exceptional consideration of learning rate and clump size to which the model is touchy and need to overcharge them, to get a standout amongst another outcome in front. Here is the model summary:

Figure 2: Model Summary

In this sequential model 1st layer is a dense layer having an activation layer as Rectified Linear Unit (Relu). After the 2nd layer, batch normalization is used. The final layer uses sigmoid as activation fiction as the loss needs to be minimized. Adam optimizer has been used. In particular, some of the layers I have changed to see the changes and add other layers as well. The layer has in total of 80k+ parameters.

View More technical report sample on ANN or Other Course Here!

5       Results and discussion

I have tune hyperparameters such as epoch, batch size, etc. Batch size = 256 and epoch = 22 has been given as it is achieving good accuracy.

Technical Report Sample; ANN: model-accuracy

Figure 3: Model accuracy

This curve shows that both the train and test accuracy is good. After 22 epoch, the loss is .03, accuracy is 98.9%, validation loss is 0.06, and validation accuracy is 97.3% which is a great result indeed.

Technical Report Sample on ANN - Model loss
Technical Report Sample; ANN

Figure 4: Model loss

The pictures show there is no over-fitting. The model is efficient in results.

6       Conclusions and recommendations

Mobile Sensor data can play a revolutionary role, additionally, with the neural network, it can be helpful to detach any unexpected activity. Alike the apple smartwatch is the best example of a device. Its model is also trained using this type of sequence learning. Though my tuning does not any special effects on accurse and loss, I have learned all those practices. By tuning the hyperparameters, the model’s validation accuracy can be increased from 97.98% to 99% and precision can be increased from 95% to 97%.

7       Acknowledgments on Technical Report Sample on ANN

The main implementation of codes collected from Kaggle.com and the dataset is collected from UCI machinery. I owe nothing, I have just experimented and try to implement a sequence learning model such as LSTM.

8       References 

[1]H. F. S. N. S. Carlos Paniagua∗, “Mobile Sensor Data Classification for Human Activity Recognition,” Elsevier, The 9th International Conference on Mobile Web Information Systems (MobiWIS 2012), p. 585 – 592, 2012.
[2]S.-B. C. Charissa Ann Ronao, “Human activity recognition with smartphone sensors using deep learning neural networks,” Expert Systems with Applications, p. 59, 2016.
[3]A. G. L. O. X. P. a. J. L. R.-O. Davide Anguita, “Human Activity Recognition Using Smartphones Data Set,” 21th European Symposium on Artificial Neural Networks, Computational Intelligence and Machine Learning, ESANN 2013., Bruges, Belgium 24-26 April 2013. .
[4]deadskull7, “Human-Activity-Recognition-with-Neural-Network-using-Gyroscopic-and-Accelerometer-variables,” GitHub, [Online]. Available: https://github.com/deadskull7/Human-Activity-Recognition-with-Neural-Network-using-Gyroscopic-and-Accelerometer-variables.

Appendix A: Technical Report Sample

This is a technical report sample on ANN. Thank You for Reading!

Categories
Education Public Speech

The Skill of Self Confidence by Dr. Ivan Joseph

In my past life as a soccer coach, once you won a national championship, everyone wants to come play for you.

Really not true. Once you paid them $25,000 a year in scholarships, everybody wants to come play for you. And parents would always come to me and they’d say: “Okay, my son or my daughter wants to come play at your university, what is it that we have to do? You know, what are you looking for?”

And being the Socratic professor that I am, I say, well, what does your son or daughter do? What do they do really well that we’d be interested in? And typically their answers are, well, they’ve got great vision. They’re really good. They can see the entire field. Or, my daughter is the fastest player, there’s nobody that can beat her. Or, my son’s got a great left-footer. Really great in the air and can hit every ball.

I’m like: “Yeah, not bad; but to be quite honest with you, those are the last things I’m looking for. The most important thing? Self-confidence.”

Without that skill, and I use the word skill intentionally, without that skill, we are useless as a soccer player. Because when you lose sight or belief in yourself, we’re done for.

I use the definition of self-confidence to be the ability or the belief to believe in yourself, to accomplish any task, no matter the odds, no matter the difficulty, no matter the adversity. The belief that you can accomplish it – self-confidence.

Some of you are saying, “Great, I don’t have it. I’m so shy. I’ll never do that, bla, bla, bla.”

And you start to drag all the way down here. But, I use the word skill because I believe it can be trained. And I’ll show you a couple of ways in which we do. Hopefully I won’t run out of time. I don’t use any slides because my speech always goes here, or here, or here. So we’ll see which way we get to.

The easiest way to build self-confidence: there’s no magic button. I can’t say: “Hey, this plane is going down, who can fly? Put your hand up.”

“I can, I’m confident!”

Repetition, repetition, repetition. Right?

What does Malcom Gladwell call it, the 10,000-hour rule? There’s no magic button.

I recruited a goalie from Colombia, South America one year. Big, tall 6’3″ man. You know, he had hands like stone. I thought he was like Flipper. Every time I threw him the ball, down, onto the ground. I was like, oh my god, we’re in trouble.

Simple solution: get to the wall, kick a ball against the wall and catch it. Kick the ball against the wall and catch it.

His goal was 350 a day for eight months. He came back, his hands were calloused, the moisture on his hands were literally gone, he is now playing in Europe. Magic? No.

Repetition, repetition, repetition.

The problem is, we expect to be self-confident but we can’t be unless the skill, or the task we’re doing, is not novel, is not new to us. We want to be in a situation where we have so much pressure in that and what I mean, because pressure builds diamonds, we want to be in a situation where “Hey, I’ve done this a thousand times”.

I did my speech, and I practiced in front of a mirror: bla, bla, bla, bla, bla, bla. Hey I’m sounding good. And then I went in front of my kids, and my wife. I said, oh gosh, I got a little nervous.

Then I’d get in front of Glenn Gould, Oh my goodness, I am a little more nervous!

By the time I get to the ACG, where 2,500 people, can’t say anymore, right? Twenty-five hundred people, where twenty-five hundred people are there, I won’t have a single ounce of nervousness because of my ability to practice. Right?

Over, and over, and over, again.

The problem with repetition is: how many of us bail after the first bit of failure? How many of us bail after the first bit of adversity? Edison was on that video, and it depends who you ask, there’s anywhere from 1,000 to 10,000 tries to build that light bulb. 1,000 to 10,000.

J.K Rowling should be on that video. Do you know how many publishers she took her Harry Potter book to? I believe the number was 12 or 13…I am pretty confident but after two or three no’s I’d be like: “damn it!”.

After six or seven, I’m like: “maybe not!” Definitely after nine or ten, I’d be looking to be a soccer coach or something else besides an author. Right?

I mean, twelve times somebody said no. But, practice, practice, practice, and do not accept failure.

Maybe it shouldn’t be repetition, maybe the answer should be persistence. Because we all repeat something but very few of us really will persist. So that’s one way to build self-confidence.

Get out there. Do what you want to do and do not accept no.

The other one is self-talk. We all have a self-talk tape that plays in our head. Anybody go shopping and put on a pair of pants this week? If you’re a woman, the first thing that always comes: “Damn I look fat in these pants!.”

And if you’re a man, it’s the opposite: “Oh god, I got no muscle, I’m so flabby!” Right? We all have this tape that plays in our head.

As a student, if they asked me the question, it was like: “Oh, gee please professor don’t pick me, I don’t know the answer.” I’d look down. Right?

If you’re in the b…when I, let me tell you something, and the VP of business admin is here, I shouldn’t repeat this, but when they hired me as an athletics director, I sat in an architect’s meeting, and I am as dumb as a post when it comes to anything to do with numbers and angles.

And they are like: the fundibulator valve of the architectural, uh, what do you think doctor Joseph? Uh, let me look into that for you and get back to you. Right?

I was in a, oh god god, please don’t ask me, please don’t ask me. We all have this negative self-talk that goes in our head.

Guess what? There’s enough people that are telling us we can’t do it. That we’re not good enough. Why do we want to tell ourselves that? We know for a fact that thoughts influence actions. We saw it there with the video Sheldon, Dr. Levy showed.

We know that our thoughts influence actions, why do we want to say that negative self-talk to ourselves? We need to get our own self-affirmations. Muhammad Ali, what was his self-affirmation? I am the greatest! Who else is going to tell you?

There need to be quiet moments in your bedroom, quiet moments when you’re brushing your teeth. That we need to reaffirm: “I am the captain of my ship and the master of my fate!” That is my affirmation.

I came from a school of one thousand people, I lived in a town of one thousand people for fifteen years; there’s no reason that I should be in charge of an Athletics department, building maple leaf gardens. But I am the captain of my ship and the master of my fate.

If I don’t say it, if I don’t believe it, no one else will.

How do you build self-confidence? Get away from the people who will tear you down. There’s enough of that.

Muhammad Ali, I am the greatest! There is no one better than me. There’s a difference between hubris, and ego, and false pride. It’s just reminding yourself in quiet silent moments, I put it down on a list, it’s right beside my mirror, right? about all the things that make me who I am.

Because I make enough mistakes, and the newspapers will recognize it, and people around me will recognize it; and they’ll tear me down, and pretty soon I’ll begin to believe it.

There was a time when my confidence was really low. There was a time when I took this job when I came from Iowa, I don’t know if I could do it. I had to bring out my self-confidence letter. A letter I wrote to myself when I was feeling good. Ivan, congratulations on getting your PhD before 40. Congra…I am 40, under. Congratulations on winning a national championship. Good job on raising three good kids and marrying the right woman.

I wrote a letter to myself, it was my own brag sheet. My own letter about the things I was proud of. Because there are moments, and we’ll all experience them in our career, in our lives, in our job hunting, in our relationships; when we are not feeling good about who, and what, and where we are.

And I had to bring out that letter and read it time and time again, for a period of about two weeks, to weather me through that storm. It was important.

Stop the negative self-talk. If you watch you’ll see some athletes that have a little bandage, or a little brand around them.

Lance Armstrong is a perfect one. What’s his self-affirmation? Livestrong isn’t a brand, it was to remind him of who he was. Live strong. Then it became a brand. He would move that from one arm to the next arm, when doubt and fear came into his mind. Live strong, put it on there, let’s go. We’ll all have it, we place it.

Two ways to build self-confidence.

 I’m worried about my time, I’m going to tell you of one way you can build self-confidence in others. We are coaches and educators, we are teachers, we are people who will create value in the world; and in doing that, we are critical by the nature of what we do.

I am a coach, I want you to score a goal. The ball went over high. “Dang it!” The ball went high! “Thank you coach, I know that. Feedback tells me that.”

So what do we do? I need you to put your elbow here, I need you to put your knee over the ball, I need you to follow through. Boom. Land. Great.

Notice, I never made it as a professional. What can we do? We fix mistakes. When I’m fixing that mistake: “Johnny, this is terrible, you need to bend your knee, you need to do this, this.”

What have I done to Johnny’s self-confidence? Bend your knee, then do this, then do this. Next thing you know, Johnny’s crushed. Ignore what Johnny does wrong and find Bob or Sally or Freda over here. Great goal Freda, I love how you kept your knee low, you followed through, and you landed like this. Great job!

Johnny: “Oh?” Great! Johnny’s not demoralized. His confidence isn’t shot, and what I’ve done is, I’ve built up Freda’s. Imagine how we could change the way we parented kids. Instead of: “get that glass off the counter, what’s wrong with you?”

If we catch the mother, good. Great job! Great job. Thank you Alice for taking your glass to the counter. It sounds simple but we forget about it. Or as educators, or as somebody as a team, if we manage to praise the positive behavior that we wanted to reinforce. We forget it. It sounds so simple.

Catch them when they’re good. We forget it. It’s simple.

Here’s what they did.

There was a study in Kansas that did this. They did video, and we all do video. And we show the video of them doing the run of the play: “Um, this goal happened because the basket wasn’t protected, we didn’t rotate here, right? We needed to do this and then cover the slot.”

And, if that’s the baseline, improvement of the Kansas State team went like this. Then, they said they ignored all of that and they just showed them the times they did it right. The times they did it perfect. That presented no goals, spoke to the same points, improvement went like that.

It changed and revolutionized the way we as coaches interact with our student athletes. We can apply that to the business world, we can apply that to our student group works, we can apply that to our management teams.

Easily: catch them when they are good.

Last and certainly not least. My son is really good at this. Self-confident people interpret feedback the way they choose to. I ask my son who is by the far a terrible, terrible athlete, gets it from his dad.

The game’s…How’s the game? Oh great! I scored three goals, I got two assists. I’m like: “I did not see him touch the puck!” But he has his own perception of how he did! I love it!

Right? I’m the…I’m that guy! I’m like: “I remember when I was taking when I met my wife, it was in the commons. “Paulie, would you like to go to the movies? Ladies? Tingly, tingly, tingle.”

And she goes: “Ah, no.” I asked her again. Because I think that she just hasn’t seen me in the right light.

Maybe, that’s not the wrong shirt on. Right? Because I’m interpreting that the way I want to interpret it.

Finally I asked her out again. She gave me this one comment, right? Or, she sent it to her friend. Because that’s the way you did it back then. “She wouldn’t date you unless there was the last person on Earth, hell was freezing over, there was a small chance we had to save the planet Earth. Some people, it’s like, there’s no chance.

I’m like: “You’re saying there’s a chance.” Right? Because that’s how I’m going to interpret it. If I could give you one thing to take from this, it is: no one will believe in you unless you do.

Listen to the words of that video, here’s to the crazy ones, the misfits, the rebels, the troublemakers, the round pegs in the square holes. We’re supposed to be different, folks. And when people look at us, believe in yourself.

Thank you.

Categories
Education Public Speech

Sample Speech Analysis

This is a Sample Speech Analysis/ Example Speech Analysis – general format. It will help you to understand the pattern of writing informative speech analysis. This was my assignment task on speech analysis at university.

The main purpose of the speech titled “The Skill of Self Confidence” is to educate. The specific goal is to discuss the main techniques of how to build the skills of self-confidence. To become successful, self-confidence plays the key part and Dr. Ivan Joseph defines this at greater length. The qualities of speech and its deficiency will be autopsied here.

At the very first of the speech, Dr. Joseph addresses the audience by sharing his experience that how everyone interested in coming to play by him telling different abilities. Consequently, he efficiently gathers the attention of the audience using the personal experience by telling what he is most importantly locking for. By sharing the experiences from his personal life as a coach, makes him a good credible speaker. Moreover, the he sets listener relevance of the subject matter by telling about his student who is playing in Europe having a high confidence level.

The body of the speech is well organized with key points that help to show the importance of self-confidence having different examples of great men. Listening to the whole speech, it is understandable that the topical order is used as the main organizational order. He starts giving examples of Mohammad Ali, J. K Rowling and visualizes their level of self-confidence then starts by showing the path to build self-confidence. The word repetition works as a rhetorical device in the speech. After that, his speech progress to catch a student’s mind when they are in good condition.

The concluding part of the speech expresses the most important elements where Dr. Joseph restates his main purposes of the speech that he informed earlier. He incorporates an example that works the clincher and it appeals towards a great lesson that shows the path to praise the positive behavior. Finally, the speaker calls-out with appealing to the audience by suggesting “Catch them when they are good.”

Starting with a story, the speaker creates an environment. The speaker’s eye-contact shows the confidence level of the speech. The speaker manages vocal tone properly at the time of saying rhetorical word ‘repetition’. The speaker uses the whole stage to incorporate with audience and uses different body languages at the time of telling his own experiences.

The speaker could have used a structured form of the thesis statement. But, throughout the whole speeches, he gave many examples and logics with sound language which helps the audience to visualize the information. Having said that, the speaker has a good knowledge of using and placing rhetoric words. He created practical relations with the main points of his speech which worked as the ethos and pathos of his explanation. He established a practical connection to the audience of his speech. Though he did not properly maintain the structure, and the main key points were not perfectly restated in the conclusion; but his body language, good sense of humor, the delivery skill can be an outstanding example for others. Moreover, the speech made me educated that having a good level of self-confidence, I can also achieve my goals.

Thank you!

Main Speech Video Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w-HYZv6HzAs&t

Read More: Sample Speech Outline

Focused Keyword for SEO: Speech Analysis, Sample Speech Analysis, Example speech analysis.

Categories
Education

Sample – Speech Outline

Topic: Is Great Britain justified in leaving the European Union?

General Goal:                          To persuade.

Specific Goal:                          I want to persuade my audience that Britain’s decision is justified in leaving the European Union.

Introduction:

Attention Getter:                     Have you watched the British documentary film ‘Brexit’ on Netflix performed by the famous actor Benedict Cumberbatch? In that film, Cummings, the main character campaigned to convince British voters to leave the EU.

Listener Relevance:                 The law regarding the withdrawal of Britain from the EU is called Brexit. Independence.co.uk once headlined that Britain’s people voted 52% to leave the EU.

Speaker Credibility:                 After watching the documentary film on Brexit, I have become interested and done a good amount of research whether it is justified or not.

Thesis Statement:                    Many reasons justify the decision of leaving, but the most important reasons are economic interdependence, economic well-being, and unmanaged immigration.

Body:

(Transition: Firstly, the most important reason is economic interdependence.)

  1. Economic Interdependence:
  2. Britain is more economically dependable on the EU.
  3. Time magazine shows 12.6% of Britain’s GDP is connected exporting to the EU.
  4. But the EU’s currency is the euro and this is causing several problems in every market in Britain.

(Transition:  Secondly, Brexit is justified for economic well-being.)

  • Economic Well-being:
  • Britain is giving millions of dollars to the EU.
  • But in return, Britain does not get much.
  • Moreover, the common fisheries policy observed that Britain is getting less in its finishing water whereas the EU gets a huge part.

(Transition:  Finally, the emotional site of Brexit is heavily affected by unmanaged immigration.)

  • Unmanaged Immigration:
  • EU law assures that one EU citizen can travel all EU countries and take jobs.
  • Eurozone countries sometimes struggle economically.
  • Those people came to Britain for jobs and it is undercutting the native working population’s job and increases unemployment.

Conclusion:

Review of Main Points:                        Though many people thought that the Brexit is a wrong decision but Britain’s people support it for mainly its economic interdependence, economic well-being, and unmanaged immigration.

Clincher:                                              Brain has the right to leave the EU by law. But the facts behind it, are mostly patriotism rather than quite scattered to what is the case.

Appeal to Action:                                So, I would like to call-out my speech by telling you that we should know the current news regarding the world to learn and make ourselves a knowledgeable person.

Categories
Education

Compare AND Contrast Essay

Sample – Compare AND Contrast Essay. The course was Intermediate Composition. This was my final assignment at university.

Studying at NSU Campus and Studying at Home

Have we ever asked ourselves if where we study impacts more in our life? It is quoted that a student can gain knowledge from everywhere. But everyone has his/her favorite place to do study, assignment, etc. Perhaps, studying at North South University campus and studying at home can offer both many similar and dissimilar things. There are mainly three similarities between these two places such as quietness, relaxation, and study material; however, there are also some dissimilarities such as crowd, collaboration, and technology.

In consideration of quietness, both places have many similarities. At the NSU campus, there are many places where I can study quietly. There is a quiet study hall for studying in a quiet environment. Besides, I can study in the central library, where no one is allowed to make a sound. The library has a good amount of space so one can set along and do his study properly. In the same way, in my house, I have my room where I can study quietly so no one can disturb me. Moreover, I can easily lock the door of my room or tell family members not to knock me during my studying period to make a quiet environment to do exam preparations, do online classes, complete assignments properly. So, indeed quietness is one of the most important similarities that is experienced by all of the university going students.

Another most important similarity between these two places is relaxation. In NSU, classrooms are well air-conditioned and clean. Moreover, the library and study hall has many relaxing chairs and big tables to place books and study materials. On the campus, if I get hungry, there is a large canteen for eating food. Besides, NSU has a different resting place for both boys and girls. I can go to the boys’ lounge to take a nap. Likewise, NSU club rooms have relaxing sofa sets for taking rest. Similarly, at home, I can do my study relaxingly since I have a personal room and a table to place my books and study materials for doing any assignment or quiz study. In the same manner, I can get food easily as the kitchen is near beside my room. If I feel tired, I can easily take a nap in my room. Hence, both places are different but have a similar amount of relaxation for studying peacefully. 

The last but not the least important comparison between studying at NSU or home is the availably of study material. In that case, both places are best, I must say, as both places have the facility to avail of books. At NSU, I can easily find any books on the central library or the book shop from where I can easily buy or borough books. Also, I can easily get some help by going to the teachers’ office hours. Besides, I can get help from my friend to understand any complicated topic or I can borough a calculator. In the same way, at home, I can have my books, notebooks and enough resources to do the study without facing any problem. Furthermore, I can get help form my family members. In my house, I have all my study tools available at my table, which is indeed very helpful when I have a mid tomorrow. I do not need to worry about anything at all. Therefore, it is highly said that in a comparison between these two places, both have almost the same amount of study materials that any student can make his/ her lessons clear in no time.

However, both places have similarities, but also have some major dissimilarities that make these both places unique at every student’s point of view. One of the major contrasting points is liveliness. At the NSU campus, typically there are many students doing classes in the classroom which establishes proper attention to the lecture. Besides, the faculty can show a practical example on the board with a marker easily. Furthermore, students can make groups to discuss the day’s topic. On the other hand, at home, studying with the help of the internet separates one from the liveliness. Additionally, online classes or online courses might be helpful but most of the time it fails to set up proper attention on the study. Also, students cannot feel free to ask questions about the lecture. So, in consideration of liveliness, studying at the campus and studying at home is differ highly.

The second most important difference is the chance of collaboration. In consideration of studying with a group can make one more prepared. Sometimes it is hard to understand the question patterns, solve all the problems written in the books or notes; but having a group discussion, most of the problems can be solved easily. In this case, studying at the NSU campus with a friend circle can make anyone more knowledgeable. In my experience, I have many good experiences of collaborative study at campus. I get help from my fellow group mates. Sometimes, it is so difficult to do the whole project by myself but with the help of the groupmates, I can finish the project smoothly. Besides, studying at home, I have to study along most of the time and that’s why I need to solve all of the study problems by myself. So, in consideration of collaborative study, these two places differ most.

The last contrasting point is the availability of enough technology. At NSU campus students can have different technology such as lab facility, the free Wi-Fi facility, and the print zone facility. It is hard to read the slides at PC or smartphone but the NSU campus gives us the facility of printing 200 pages at a semester. Studying at NSU, anytime we can go to the IT dept. and easily print the slides for reading. Moreover, computer labs have high-speed internet, and the central library has the faculty of printing the premium journal papers and magazines which we cannot do at home. Though almost all of us have a personal computer, most of us do not have a high-speed internet connection, printing facility available at home. Also, if we need to do research work for any publication writing, we need to sign up for a premium account which is too much costly for us. But at NSU campus, those cost is beard by NSU authority for us and this facility is only available from the central library computer. So, in that case, I must say, studying at the NSU campus is more suitable than studying at home.

In conclusion, choosing where to study is a very subjective experience. Studying at NSU and studying at home both places have many similarities and dissimilarities but these are the strong and bold points of similarities: quietness, relaxation, study materials; and dissimilarities: liveliness, collaboration, technology. All of these points mainly depend on the mindset of a student. In my opinion, studying place is dependable in the present situation that I am going to face; and right now we are going through a tough time. However, no matter where I choose to study, the most valuable thing to keep in mind is to be generative. We should find our proper study place and restrain distractions to make our future brighter.

Categories
Education

Cause AND Effect Analysis Essay

Sample – Compare AND Contrast Essay. The course was Intermediate Composition. This was my final assignment at university.

Enrollment in North South University

Categories
Education Uncategorized

Subject-verb Agreement

This file is collected from Nasrin Parvin miss’s lecture. She is a wonderful instructor.

You already know that subjects and verbs agree in number.

My sister is married.  (singular)

My sisters are married. (plural)

My brother and I are single. (plural)

Subject-verb agreement is sometimes confusing in the following situations:

  1. When a sentence begins with the word there + verb be, the subject follows the be verb. Look ahead to see whether to use a singular or plural verb.

There is a student in the hall. (The verb is is singular to agree with a student.)

There are three students in the hall. (The verb are is plural to agree with three students.)

There was no reason for his action.

             There were many reasons for his success.

  • A prepositional phrase (a group of words beginning with a preposition such as of, with, in, at, or on and ending with a noun or pronoun) can come between a subject and its verb. Prepositional phrases may come after a subject, but they are not part of the subject. You should mentally cross them out when you are deciding if the verb should be singular or plural.

One of my sisters is a singer. (The subject is one, not sisters.)

The color (of her eyes) changes when she is angry. (The subject is color, not eyes.)

Six kinds (of rice) are available in the grocery store. (The subject is kinds, not rice.)

  • Some words are always singular.

One (of my brothers) is a musician.

Neither (of my parents) is living.

Much (of my time) is spent in the library.

Each (of my brothers) wants his own car.

Either (of my sisters) is able to baby-sit for you tonight.

Nothing ever happens in my life.

Is anyone home?

  • A few words are always plural.

Both (of my parents) are teachers.

Several (of the teachers) speak my language.

Many (of my friends) work in the library.

  • A few words can be either singular or plural. In these cases, you must refer to the noun in the prepositional phrase.
  • Some (of the money) was missing. (singular)
  • Some (of the students) were missing. (plural)
  • All (of my time) is spent in the library. (singular)
  • All (of my brothers) are singers. (plural)
  • Most (of the ice) was melted. (singular)
  • Most (of the ice cubes) were melted. (plural)
  • A lot (of the work) was too easy. (singular)
  • A lot (of the people) were angry. (plural)
  • None (of the fruit) is fresh. (singular)
  • None (of the apples) are fresh. (plural)

Practice 1

Underline the subjects with one line and the verbs with two lines. Put parentheses (  ) around prepositional phrases.

  1. My name is Roberto Sanchez.
  2. I was born on September 21, 1978 in the city of San Juan, Puerto Rico.
  3. I am a student of Greenhills College in Boston, Massachusetts.
  4. Some of my classes are difficult.
  5. Some of the homework is boring.
  6. A lot of my classes are in Dante Hall.
  7. A lot of my time is spent in the student lounge.
  8. My father works in an office.
  9. None of my brothers are married.
  10. None of the money was stolen.
  11. My youngest brother are sister are still in high school.
  12. My father understands English but doesn’t speak it.
  13. In South America, most of the people are Catholic.
  14. Neither of my parents has been to the United States.

Practice 2

In each sentence, underline the subject with one line. Then cross out the incorrect verb form.

  1. One of my classmates (is/are) from my country, El Salvador.
  2. Some of the teachers (speak/speaks) my language.
  3. Each of the gifts (was/were) carefully wrapped in gold paper.
  4. One of the words on the test (was/were) misspelled.
  5. A lot of my classes (was/were) canceled last week.
  6. A lot of my time (is/are) spent in the library.
  7. In my country most of the people (want to go/wants to go) to college.
  8. (Do/Does) anyone know the correct time?
  9. There (is/are) several kinds of flowers in the bouquet.
  10. There (wasn’t/weren’t) any electricity in our building last night.
  11. The noise from the firecrackers (was/were) loud.

Practice three: Editing practice

Find and correct six errors in subject-verb agreement in the following paragraph.

     Golf is no longer the sport of the rich, middle-aged, white man. Young people around the world is taking up the game, and some of them is taking it over. One of the young stars are Sergio Garcia, a fascinating young golfer from Spain. Sergio was born in 1980 and started playing golf at the age of 3. He became a professional golfer in 1999 at the age of 19. Sergio became famous by hitting a golf shot at a target from behind a tree with his eyes closed. Two other young golf stars are Tiger Woods and Michelle Wie. Both Tiger and Michelle started playing golf at very young ages, and both has ethnic backgrounds. Tiger, born in California in 1975, is Thai-African-American-Native-American. Michelle, born in Hawaii in 1989, is Korean-American. Each of these two young Americans have shocked the world of golf in different ways. Tiger shocked everyone by becoming the best golfer in the world while still in his early twenties. Michelle shocked everyone by competing against men—and beating many of them—at the age of fourteen. It is clear that all three of these young golfers has great futures ahead of them.

Categories
Education

Transition Words

Transition Words – Practice Question

This questions were collected from Nasrin Parvin miss’s slide.

Compound Sentences:

 
RelationshipCoordinating ConjunctionsConjunctive AdverbSubordinate Conjunction (adverbial clauses)
Additionandaccordingly again also besides furthermore in addition moreover 
Comparison, similarityandalso in the same way likewise similarlyas as if as though just as
Contrast or oppositionbut or yethowever in comparison in contrast instead nevertheless on the contrary on the other hand otherwise still unfortunately  although even though though whereas whether while    
Timeand thenafterward at the same time finally first furthermore in the meantime later meanwhile next second subsequently then thirdafter as as long as as soon as before once since until when whenever while    
Illustrationfor example, for instance, in fact  
Compound Sentences
RelationshipCoordinating ConjunctionsConjunctive, AdverbSubordinate Conjunction (adverbial clauses)
Manner  as if as though like
    
Purpose  in order that, so that
Reason, cause, effectfor soas a result consequently hence then therefore thusas as long as because inasmuch as in order that now that since so that such that
Conditionso even if even though if in case only if provided that unless whether or not
Summation finally hence in conclusion in general in short in summary overall therefore 
Emphasis certainly indeed in fact to be sure 

Final Practice

01.

whichwhilethenthatandthereuponbut

The Caliph marveled at the grace and radiance of the young girl, a)___ was astonished to see b)__ each of the dervishes was blind in the left eye. The girls offered him a cup of wine c)__ he excused himself; saying , “I am setting forth on a pilgrimage to Mecca shortly.” d)__ one of the girls put down before him a small table, on e)__ she placed a cup of Chinese porcelain. The Caliph kept on seeing all these wonderful things done by the girls.

02.

otherwisebutsoalthoughhoweverwhichaccordingly

Every citizen has some duties and responsibilities for his nation. a)__ most of the people are careless in this respect. The people of this country have achieved national identity by dint of a great sacrifice b)__ is still evaluated nationally c)__ some selfish people never want to give their recognition. d)__,   we all should do some benevolent activities, e)__ , we will be indebted to the nation.

03.

so thatifas ifthatsincethoughin order to

Most of our students cannot write out their examination papers fairly. a)__ they cannot understand the question properly, they often beat about the bush and cram their answer with irrelevant and unnecessary details. b)__their teachers suggest c)__ their answer should be brief and precise, they often lengthen them unnecessarily. d)___ get expected marks, you all should understand the questions well and answer them to the point. He shouldn’t worry e)__ some of his answers are fairly short.

04.

likewiseuntilwheneverhoweverconsequentlyotherwiseon the contrary

Aloka is a very sincere student. a)__ she gets time, she sits in her table. She does will in her college tests. b)___, she doesn’t forget to take physical exercise. c)__, her sister Anika is very inattentive to her studies. d)__, she can’t do well in her school tests. One day her father called him and said, “You should be attentive to study. e)__ you won’t be able to shine in life”.

05.

eitherifalsoorasmoreoverand

English gives us easy access to the ever-expanding knowledge of science and technology, arts and education, innovations and discoveries. a)__ all the books, journals, reports, research findings are available in English. b)__ any important books, papers etc are c)__ written in English d)__ translated into English immediately after they are published in other language. English language can easily learn about them e)__ you have acquired the reading skills in English.

06.

because ofhealthyalsolaterat the agefeverbut

Helen Keller was born in 1880 at Tashcambia in America. She was born as a a)__ and normal child b)__ lost her eyesight later. c)__of one and a half she was attacked by brain d)__. This disease took away her power of seeing. She e)__ lost her power of hearing.

07.

whowhenwhilebecauseorthoughthat

a)__ taking food, we should bear in mind b)__ we do not eat just to satisfy hunger c)__ to fill the belly. We eat to preserve our health. Some people d)__ live in the midst of plenty, do not eat the food they need for good health e)__ they have no knowledge of the science of health and nutrition.

08.

henceaswhowhenthatif 

Students are the future leaders for a country a)___ are to lead a nation.  b)__ they must seek to fulfill their potential. They possess the art c)__ can lead to their success story. d)__ leaders, they can decide our fates e)__ they discharge their responsibilities with great efficiency, we can reach the target of perfection.

09.

butthatnot onlybut alsoabove allalsowho

Rokeya is a Bangladeshi girl a)__ is about to finish school . b)__ she has no hope of going on to college. Her parents are c)__ illiterate d)__ superstitions. e)__ they think that educating girls is but a mere wastage of money.

10.

in shortthoughuntilmoreoverin spite ofifbothas

Mr. X is a miser a)__ he earns a lot of money. He seldom buys new clothes. b)___, he bargains with the shopkeepers to save money. c)__ having many friends, he always avoids entertaining them. d)__ he and his wife put on shabby dresses. e)__, he possesses a strange personality.

11.

thussoasifbesideswhoevenbecause

Honesty is a noble virtue. The man a)___ possesses this rare quality is the happiest person in the world. To be honest, man should have rust worthiness b)__ nobody trusts a liar. c)__, Allah helps the honest people. d)__ children should  be taught honest from the very beginning of life.  e)__ children should be developed among the honesty people.

12.

in factrecentlysometimesbesidesfor instancethoughwhile

a)__ man has made tremendous technological progress, he has not been able to conquer nature completely. b)__, he is hit by natural calamities. c)__ , a devastating flood very often occurs in Bangladesh leaving people homeless d)__ other various calamities damage and destory life and property. e)__ some of the African countries are affected by drought.

13.

after all because ofsomehowin factwhenhoweverunfortunately

Having a degree on medicine Gulliver went on a voyage. a)__ the ship was wrecked but he b)__ managed to swim ashore. He slept a deep sleep c)__ his tiredness. d)__ he woke up he saw many tiny creatures. e)__, they were the human beings smaller than Gulliver himself.

14.

as a resulthoweveractuallywhichtodaysincebecause of

Globalisation is a term a)__ is commonly used by man. b)__, it is a process of expanding trade and commerce all over the world creating a borderless market. c)__ global development, we have conquered the time and distance. d)__, we can learn what is happening in the farthest corner of the world.  e)__ we can easily share our feelings with others.

15.

whatthereforethatashoweverwhenand

A cook once roasted a duck for his master. The roast looked so delicious a)__ the cook couldn’t resist the temptation b)__ ate up one of the drumsticks. c)__ his master sat down to eat, he quickly noticed the missing leg and asked d)___ had happened to the other leg. The cook told him that the duck had one leg only. The master was not to be fooled. He said that there was no such thing e)___ a one-legged duck. The cook insisted that this duck had only one leg.

16.

sincewhenbutwhateveranythoughnevertheless

a)__ I had an accident, I was taken to hospital. b)__ I came out with my head still bandaged. I again met with another accident. I struggled instinctive fear c)___in vain, d)___ I made up my mind to vanquish it at e)___ cost.

17.

so thatin fact thoughbutforrecentlysince

If you come to Chandpur, you will see many Hilsha fish caught in the river Meghna there. a)___ it is full of Hilsha fish, b)__ it is true that poor people can’t eat this delicious fish c)__ they can’t afford to buy it. The government d)__ imposed a law to sell this fish in the local market e)__ the price comes down to the afford ability of the poor.

18.

howeverthatwhyonly throughonlysomewhatusuallyhighly

The greatness of a book depends a)__ on the acceptability among the readers. If we read a book b)__ one, we can discover many things in it. But basing on one reader, we cannot judge the standard of a book. When a book is praised c)__ we have no doubt about the greatness of the book. d)__ reading, we may not understand a book, but if it is read more than once, we will see e)__ it was read and praised.

19.

whosein finewhoneverthelessashoweverthat

There is no doubt a)__ honesty wins in the long run. A man b)__ practices honesty in all his world never faces difficulty. c)__ there are some people d)__ only thought is to create difficulty for honest people e)__ they want to get things illegally.

20.

eventhatbutwhichbesideswhenmoreover

Smoking is a serious bad habit. It is a social crime. Smoking is such a bad habit a)__ it is harmful  for a person both financially and physically b)__ smoking has a bad effect on the society. c)__ a man smokes, he has to pay an amount. d)__ this smoking is equivalent to taking poison knowingly. Rich men speed a handsome amount for smoking e)__ could be sufficient to satisfy the hunger of a poor family.

21.

moreoverin factfor instancewhenon the other handthoughhowever

a)___ fish and whales live in water; whales do not behave like fish. b)__ they behave like human beings. Many whales show strong family ties. c)__ the young remain with their parents for 15 years or even more. d)__ in times of danger  they look after one another. e)__ a member is wounded or sick, the others do not abandon it. They support it on their backs so that it can breathe.

22.

but alsobutbecause ofbesidesthatnot onlythough

Mashroom is very useful food. a)___ we have been neglecting this wonderful vegetable for a long b)__ our ignorance. The other reason is c)__ it grows in filth and soggy places. d)__, we are unaware of its nutritional values. It has e)__ nutritional values but also medicinal  qualities.

23.

althoughbesidesso thatbothbutandwhich

Life in the village has a)__ advantages and disadvantages. Village life is calm and quiet b)__ free from traffic jam. c)__ village life has many attractions and advantages, it lacks many facilities d)___ are available in the city. e)__ people can get the best education and medical treatment in the city.

24.

evenwhereasthereforeifneverthelesstruly speakingas 

No doubt our mother tongue Bangla is very rich. a)__ in this age of globalization we cannot do without English. b)__ English is the most influential language all over the world, it is taught as a compulsory subject from class one to degree level in our country. c)__ we cannot receive any higher education on any good subject without having good command in English. d)__ a radio or a TV mechanic must know English to do his job properly. e)__ we must learn English with good care  and interest.

25.

forbutbecausewhensometimesthenin order to

There are people who read a book, not because they enjoy the book, a)__ because they want to be able to say that they have read it. They want to be in the swim. Ten to one, when they read a book for those reasons, they only skim though it b)___ all they really want to do is to be able to talk as if they had read it. There people who set themselves down to read a book because they think it will do them good. They make a duty of it, a kind of penance c)__  they go so far as to set themselves to  many pages at a time. If it is some kind  of technical book which they are reading d)____ improve their knowledge, well and good. But if it is a novel, or a poem or any part of what we call ‘English Literature’, e)__ person who is reading it in this way wasting his or her time.

26.

thenagainbutas a resultasthereforeso

On the exam date of English Second Paper I was stuck up in almost a never ending traffic jam. a)__ I reached the examination hall half an hour late. When I entered the examination hall, the invigilator gave me the answer script and the question paper. I filled up the answer script. b)__ I looked at the questions. c)__ all the questions were common to me, I started writing. d)__ I could not write the full answer of any question. e)__ , I switched over to another question. Again the same thing happened.

27.

whereon the other handas long asalthoughbetweenwhilethrough

Electronic mail is popularly known as E-mail. a)__ telex   communication is also electronic in  nature, there are differences b)__ a telex and E-mail. Electronic mail communication is user to user via a computer, c)__ telex commutation is terminal to terminal. In telex, messages are sent to the same terminal box from d)__ it distributed in a printed form by an operator. e)___, E-mail is delivered to individual electronic mail boxes based in computers.

28.

especiallyifno doubtin factratherhowever 

Women are half of our population a)__ they are not given their due rights b)__ they are suffering from different social problems. Eve-teasing is the latest of them. c)__ , d) ____ the school and college going girls fall victim to this social scare. e)___ it indicates the moral degradation of the society.

29.

soon the contrarythoughevenbutlikewiseactually

Human nature is to be attracted by the outward show of things. a)__ show things may not have any merit in them. b)__ we should value the worth not the show wind. There are many men who look pious c)__ they are most notorious. The apple of seldom looks marvelous d)__ it had a bitter kernel. e)__ the wicked look polished but has a dishonest heart.

30.

thusthoughneverthelesssimilarlyagainfurthermoreas

a)____ a baby and an old person are very different in point  of age and experience; they are much similar in respect of physical ability, mental strength, economic condition. A baby physically immature and depends on the adults around him for physical movement. b)___ an old person may be weak and he depends on others for his movement. c)__ a baby possesses a little mental strength and can hardly exercise it. Likewise an old person lacks mental strength. d)__ a baby has to depend on his parents for a all finical support. An old person too, depends on his sons and daughters for economic assistance. e)___ a baby and an old person have much in common. 

31.

under certain circumstancesthoughbesideshoweversoyetto conclude

a)__ child labour is a heinous act condemned by the U. N. O. we always see young children working for a living around us. b)__ parents engage their children in work. c)__ poverty compels them to do so. There are other reasons also d)___ illiteracy of the parents is a cause of child labour. e)__ government should take steps to stop child labour.

32.

after allandbasicallythoughactuallybesidesat least

Bangladesh is a South Asian developing country. a)___ it is surrounded in three sides by India and to the south by the Bay of Bengal. b)___ we achieved independence formPakistan in 1971, her economic freedom is yet to come. c)___ ours is an agro-based economy d)___ most of the farmers cultivate their lands in an ancient method. e)__ people here are very simple, peace-loving and God-fearing.

33.

yetforassinceevenwheneven ifbefore

Florence Nightingale was the daughter of a wealthy English nobleman named Mr. Nightingale. a)___ she was born at Florence in Italy, her parents named her Florence. b)___ she was a child she slipped old of their house to the village to ease the pain of the sick humble people there. c)___ she grew older, she wanted to become a nurse. Her mother did not allow it. d)___ nurses in those day were ill paid and not honored and respected as they are now. Besides her mother, a doctor friend also warned her against doing so. e)__ nursing was the profession that Florence longed with all her heart to join.

34.

whichalthoughat presentthushoweversincebutnow

 Television is a common and widespread source of entertainment a)___ it has occupied the place and position of radio b)__ once used to be a popular source of entertainment. c)__ cricket has become more popular than football d)___ football gives us instant excitement at every moment. Watching TV e)___ has become and addiction for many.  

35.

suddenlyhoweverfor examplethenfurther morewhenfor a while

There was a violent clash in the university campus yesterday between two rival group of students. The clash began at about 11 o’ clock when one group was chanting slogans against other group. a)__ their opponents chased them from behind. b)__ the procession was dispersed. But very soon they gained strength to make a counter attack. c)___ the campus turned into a battle field. One student was stabbed to death and many others were seriously injured. d)___ the police arrested some of them, the situation came under control. e)___ the university was closed for sine die.

36.

andoryethoweversobutwhy

A reason a)__ people at school is to please their teacher. The teacher has said that this, that or the other is a good book and that it is a sign of good taste to read it. b)__ a number of boys  and girls, anxious to please their teacher, get the book and read it. Two or three of them may genuinely like it for its own sake and be grateful to the teacher for putting it in their way. c)___ many will not honestly like it, d)__ will persuade themselves that they like it e)__ that does a great deal of harm.

37.

that is whyasbecausethereforeas a matter of factof courseon the other hand

There is no denying that anger is man’s worst enemy. It is often compared to fire. a)___ , it spoils one’s good qualities b)__ fire burns and destroys our valuable things, houses, mills and factories. c)__ a man can get angry, but his anger goes beyond control, it becomes destructive. d)__ anger causes harm to the individual, to his family, to the society he lives in and to the citizen he is a citizen of. e)__ it is forbidden in all religion.

38.

in casewhichforbesidesso thatandas

I tried to get up. But could not move, a)___ I found my arms and legs tied strongly to the ground . My hair, b)__ was long and thick, was tied down in the same manner. c)___ I felt several fine ropes across my body, from my arms to my legs. I could only look upward. The sun began to grow hot, d)____ the light hurt my  eyes. I heard a strange noise around me, but e)__ I lay on my back I could see noting but the sky.

39.

ifso thatandin order tothatoras longs as

It is only hunger that makes a man work hard day and night a)___ procure his food. If hunger is not satisfied at the proper time b)__ is left to continue, it creates a showing anger. A hungry man may go to any extent of mischief and continue to work havoc c)___ his hungry is not satisfied. He does not hesitate to commit any crime d)___ he thinks that necessary for appeasement of his hunger. No force of law, religion, morality e)__ ethics has any effect upon a man whose stomach is empty.

40.

for a whilebutsoifof courseusuallyaccordinglybecause

All of our food comesform the soil. Of course some of us eat meat a)__ . b)___ animals live on plant. c)__ there were no plants, we world have no animals and no meat. d)___ the soil is necessary for life. The top of the ground is e)__ covered with grass or other plants.

41.

suddenlyat lastat the endagainoncethenso

a)__ I was coming to Dhaka form Khulna by launch. The weather was very fine and the sky was clear. b)__ we all the passengers were in a jolly mood. We all were enjoying the beautiful natural scenery on the either side of the river. c)__ after the sun set the weather turned foul. There were deep clouds in the sky. d)__ a serious storm rose. We all the passengers were terrible upset. The launch was not very big. e)__ there was no life boat in the launch. We all began to take the name of the Almighty Allah.

42.

eventhoughbutyetandsobesides

Many a student thinks it difficult to learn English a)____ the fact is not so. b)___ it is a foreign language it is interesting to know it. c)____ English literature is the richest one. d)___ it is seen that there are many writers in the Common wealth states and in the Indian Sub-continents writing English poems, short stories, novels etc. e)___, it is through English Literature one can have a peep into Greek literature, art, music and sculpture.

43.

otherwiseaccordinglynowlikemoreoverbutbesides

Human beings a)__ other elements are important for the environment. b)___ plants and other animals are being destroyed indiscriminately by us. The lives of many wild animals are c)__ under threat. If it is not stopped, our lives will also be challenging. d)__ the birds and other animals are killed for various reasons. The number of animals is decreasing e)__ . But all the species are important for ecological balance.

44.

sometimesnamelyfirstlythusafter thatduringwhen

Like the people of all professions, a teacher has got some duties to perform daily. He gets up early and does his homework. a)__ he takes academic preparation. If he is an English teacher, he reads the text very well and makes notes on important matters. b)___ it is time for school, he starts for school. In the classroom he tries his best to present everything in very lucid and simple English. c)___ he supplies notes to the students. d)___ the off time he read English newspapers, magazines etc. At school he does various works and spends a buy time. At night he again read books and takes a good preparation. e)___ a teacher passes his daily life.

45.

otherwiseevenasthoughas ifin this situationwhen

A Mother is the most important person in the world a)___ many people do not understand about it. It is a matter of greater regret that b)___ after getting married, they are fully indifferent to this fact. c)__ they become father, they should realize the affection to their children. d)__ they should bear in  mind that they were also brought up by this parents like this way. e)__ we will be indebted to them forever.

46.  

most oftenrathersoin other wordsfor instanceactuallysuddenly

Our country is overpopulated. Roads are very narrow in our country. a)___ street accidents become quite common. b)__ street accidents take place for careless driving. c)__ drivers, traffic policemen and other concerned side the road communication are responsible for almost all road accident. Last week I saw a serious street accident. A young boy was crossing the Mirpur Road near the Science Laboratory. d)___ a truck was crossing at a great speed. The ill fated boy noticed it but he could not go to the other side of the road. e)___  he was run over by the truck.

47.

andfor examplesimilarlywhileorwhichin fact

Despite their obvious differences in length, the paragraph a)__ the essay are quite similar structurally. b)___, the paragraph is introduced by either a topic sentence c)___ a topic introducer followed by a topic sentence. d)___ in the essay, the first paragraph provides introductory marital e)__  establishes the topic focus.

48.

for instancegenerallyas a resultandinitiallyafter thatalthough

Good health is a very hard thing to measure. a)__ it is one of the most precious things of life b)__ people in poor countries have poor health and people in rich countries have much better health. c)__ early death and shorter life expectancy are the common fate of most people in the poor countries. Good health depends on many different things. d)__ we need a healthy environment and good medical care for maintaining good health e)__ we need to look after our won bodies and lives.

49.

in shortthoughuntilmoreoverifin spite ofbothas

a)___ Mr X earns a lot, he is a miser. He is hardly seen to buy new clothes. b)__, he bargains with the shopkeepers to save money. c)__ having many friends, he always avoids entertaining them. d)___ he and his wife put on shabby dresses. e)___ he possesses a strange personality.

50.

ratherin additionthoughfinallybutthereforeundoubtedly 

There are many ways and means to know others or to criticize over different matters. a)___ self-criticism is the best way to measure one’s self. b)___,importance of knowing thyself can never be denied. c)__ it is important for anyone to identify his or her personality. d)___ it appears to be very difficult to find out our limitations, it is constructive for developing one’s self. They often don’t mend them selves. e)__ they are afraid of self-criticism.

51.

andfurthermoreorifbutthatunless

Traditional English grammar a)___ has been used for last three hundred years has more or less lost its appeal to modern linguists. According to Michael Swan, this grammar is not the most important thing b)__ if one makes a lot of mistakes, he/she will be more difficult to understand, c)___ some kinds of people may look down upon him/her or not take him/her seriously. Hardly anybody speaks d)__ writes a foreign language perfectly, but one will be able to communicate more successfully e)___ he/she can make his /her English reasonably correct.

52.

orbecausebutof coursewhenthoughthat

To my mind, the only sensible reason for reading anything is a)___ we enjoy or hope to enjoy it. b)__ pleasure covers a whole variety of feelings and shades of feeling. c)__ it is my strongest belief about reading that one should read only what one likes, and because one likes it. I am talking, of course, of our private reading. d)___ we are studying special subjects, or working for examinations,  we obviously have to read a good deal e)___ we would not choose to read in other circumstances.

53.

at presentbutas a resultotherwisenowoftenthat

Once upon a time, we were enriched with our social and moral values. a)__ with the touch of modernity it is waning and waning and b)___ it has come to the level of pinpoint. c)___ new social diseases are binge born day by day. ‘Eve-testing’ is one of these new born social diseases d)___ it has horrible shape that must be addressed immediately. e)___ it will be take no time to brings social destruction.

54.

howeverthoughlastlyfor this reason ifunfortunatelyon the contrary

a)___ a student does not learn his/her lessons properly, an examination is tough for him/her. b)__ an examination is easy if he/she takes proper preparation. The night before the exam is not always joyous. Feelings, of course differ from examinee to examinee. c)__ it is something like dream. d)__ most of our students are negligent. e)___ there is much hurry, suspense and tension among the students at the night before the examination.

55.

andbothindeedwhenbuteithermoreover

Eve-teasing is certainly a heavy blow to the life of a girl. Undoubtedly a girl must feel insecure a)___ she faces such an odd situation in life. Ultimately, this stigma contributes b)___ to stop her studies or to commit suicide. c)___ the existing law is not sufficient to punish the stalker or to prevent this melody. In fact, we now direly need to create social awareness. d)__ at the same time a girl must be decent e)__ in her movements and dress free nakedness.

56.

asbutbecausewhenmoreoveralso

Black holes are produced by huge stars. They are called black holes not a)___ they are real holes in space but because they cannot be seen b)__ there is no light coming out of them. c)__ after burning for billions of years stars reach the end of their lives their energy does not disappear. The burning core becomes very small like a pinpoint d)__ its weight this is as much as a star. It e)__ has tremendous gravity and gravity pulls towards it everything that comes near it.

57.

bothhowon the other handwhatsoonin order toin the end

a)___ Ali Baba reached home and told his wife b)___ he got the gold. His wife was delighted to see so much gold. So, she wanted to measure it. She went to Karim’s wife c)___ borrow a pair of scales. She was very simple women. d)___ Karim’s wife was very clever. She wanted to know e)___ Ali Baba’s wife would measure.

58.

besidesnowadaysmostalthoughsincewhichnow

Television is a common source of entertainment a)___. It has occupied the place and position of  radio b)__ was once upon a time the most popular source of entertainment’s c)___  cricket has become more popular than football. d)___ football gives us instant excitement and charmer at every moment. In the field of art and music e)___  people have changed their test.

59.

unlessbutmoreoverconsequentlysosinceespecially

Population explosion is a constant threat to our environment and existence. a)___ in Bangladesh  the population is growing at such a high rate that environment may soon fail to supply the people with minimum necessities. b)__ we take immediate steps to stop this rapid growth of population, is growing rapidly, people need more things. d)__ a developing country like Bangladeshcan not supply the people with all necessities. Many people are deprived of the basic educational and medical facilities. e)___, a great number of people are not getting jobs to earn their living.

60.

thereforehoweveralsoformbesidesalwaysthough

a)___ the very beginning of their life the rights of our society are thought to believe that the best foods should be preserved for the male members of the family. They are b)___ taught that they should eat less c)___, this trend helps their girls grow in a different way. d)___ they are victimized by social and familiar disparity. e)___ we the conscious people, should come forward to bring back their lost dignity.

61.

althoughbutasunlessbecausesoneverthelesseven

a)___ angling is my hobby, I usually catch fish with a fishing line b)__ one without having patience should not catch fish with a fishing lien c)___ one needs to wait hours after hours to catch fish with it. d)___ angling is a matter or excitement as after catching a fish one gets much pleasure. e)___ angling is my hobby.

62.

soasalong withandbutthatwho 

Fortune has often been blamed for blindness a)___ fortune is not b)__ blind c)___ men are. Those d)___ look into particular life will find e)__ fortune is usually one the side of the industrious.

63.

howeverbecausewhichas soon asso thatratherso 

Gender discrimination in Bangladesh begins at birth. Most parents want to have children a)___ they can, when they are older, supplement their family income and for help with the domestic work. In the existing socio-economic set up, male children are best suited to this purpose, b)___ girls are born to an unwelcome world. c)___ they are assigned, d)___ confined to domestic chores. Some of these girls may be at school. But all their work domestic or academic stops e)___ they are married off, which is the prime concern of the parents about their daughters.

64.

as a resultifbutthoughbesidesorandsince

Trees and plants are essential for all kinds of life. They give us food and oxygen. a)___ they protect us environmental pollution. b)__ many people are not aware of this, they cut down trees continuously. c)__, forest lands are shrinking, d)__ people go on cutting down trees, one day there will be no trees left for us. We should stop destroying forests e)___ our life will be at stake.

65.

ifthoughunlesssincebutsomehowthathowever

Corruption has become part and parcel of our life. a)___ no office work is done without corruption, people have it as an acceptable practice. b)___ this evil practice should be stopped. c)___ the government is strict, it will not be possible. d)___ some corrupt officials are punished, it has not been evicted form govt. offices. e)___ it must be eradicated at any cost.

66.

becausesounlessthatregarding
butifagainstthough 

The whole world is alarmed by AIDS epidemic a)__ AIDS has created panic now, it is not so alarming in Bangladesh. There is a controversy b)__ the origin of AIDS. The first AIDS patient was found in New York in 1974. c)__ the disease has spread virtual to ever country. d)___ we can stop the speed of the disease, we must suffer. e)___ we should be conscious about this about this disease.

67.

Ifandalong withthoughthussoand

Computer various is terror to the users of computers. a)___ it is not the biological virus, it disturbs the plain operation of a computer. Computer virus is usually a programme to delete the files which are saved b)___ useful memories. Sometimes the virus attacks the hard disk c)___ harms it. d)__ things happen e)___ no operation is possible after the attack.

68.

althoughbutbothalongalsounlessnot only

Life in village and that in towns has a)___ advantages and disadvantages. Village life is calm and quiet and free from jam b)___ city life is full of din and bustle. c)___ village life has many attractions and advantages; it lacks many facilities available in the city. City life d)___  provides us with the facilities of education and treatment e)___ with many other amenities.

69.

soas a resultof courseeven thoughhoweverifconsequentlyto speak frankly

Freedom of the press is the crying need of the day. a)___ , the press is the conscience of a nation. So, b)___ any sort of ban and prohibition is put on the liberty of the writers, especially of the news writers, editors and reporters free circulation of opinions is hampered and stopped. c)___ development especially intellectual development is bound to see a stop; sometimes restrictions and restraints are imposed on the press by the government. d)__ people are deprived of the many essential truths and things. e)___ it is true that sometimes the freedom of the press is misused by yellow journalists and reporters.

70.

whereasrecentlybecause ofthoughin factfor exampleas

Style in clothing changes a)___ fashion than because of comfort and necessity. b)___ weather does not very year to year. You can explain the reasons practicality c)___, it is not always accepted. You can, d)__ say that short dresses are colder e)___ long dresses are warmer.

71.

in addition tosoin spite ofdespitewhat notin factbesides

A tree gives us fruits, flowers, sheds, timers and a)__. Without trees our existence on earth is quite impossible. b)___ man’s friendship with trees, flowers and nature is very old. c)___ trees enhance the beauty of the environment, d)___ the immense benevolent service, they are disappearing fast because of illiteracy and ignorance. People cut down trees for fuel, furniture and other purposes. e)___ to many greedy and corrupt officials are engaged in cutting trees.

72.

after thatfirstlywhensothenbutinitially

Sir Walter Raleigh traveled widely and learnt to smoke. a)___ he returned to England. b)___ he did not stop smoking. He took two pipes everyday secretly in his room. c)___ anyone came in, he quickly hid his pipe. One day he was not quick enough. A man came in and saw clouds of smoke in the room. More smoke was coming from Raleigh’s mouth. d)___ the man brought some water and threw it over Raleigh. he ran out of the house and told everybody about it. e)___ smoking was not a secret.

73.

besidessince thenwhowhyduringbutwhere

A school is a seat of education a)___ students come to gather knowledge  for the purpose of having a bright carrier in future. b)___ the ancient period everyone was inimical, brutal and irrational. The establishment of first schools is the first step to the removal irrationality from man. c)___ man has been getting benefit of education coming to schools. Man is the man’s teacher in the school. Those d)__ are working in a school are teaching models of education in exchange of salary and other privileges. e)__ born teachers never follow commercial policy followed by the  teachers present.

74.

thoughmoreoveras well asthatinstead ofbecausebesidesif

Scientists have always wondered a)___ there is life anywhere out in the space. It was thought b)___ there is life on Mars. The pictures sent by Viking showed Mars as having a red sky c)___ a blue one and a pinkish iron rich soil. It has deserts, mountains, volcanoes d)___ seasonal variation, e)___ there are no trees or signs of any form of life.

75.

because ofwhenin order to as a resultsfor examplein shortifusually

Brain drain, means the migration of highly educated and qualified professionals to abroad. Its reasons are many. a)___ the highly qualified persons don’t get better jobs and better salaries, they are completed to seek better jobs in abroad. b)___ some highly ambitious students migrate for higher education. c)___ they manage better jobs, they get settled there. d)__  this, our country is deprived of the better service from her brilliant sons. e)___ stop brain drain and universities with better facilities should be established in our country.

76.

elsemoreoverthoughusuallyon the plus sidefor examplealso

Living in a city has both advantages and disadvantages. a)___ it is often easier to find work, b)__ there is choice of public transport. So you don’t need to won a car, c)___ there are lots of interesting things to do and places to see. d)___ you can eat in good restaurants, visits museums and go to the theatre and to concerts. e)___ when you want to relax, you can usually find a park.

77.

besidesfor instanceagainbecausesecondlyhencethat is to say

The eating habits of the people of a country depend largely on its geographical position, climate and soil a)___ the kinds of food that people eat depend on what they can grow or afford to buy from other countries. b)__ people in the tropical countries eat a lot of fruits and vegetables which grow abundantly in these regions. c)___ the chief food of the people of Hawaii are taro roots and seafood. d)___ they eat a lot of limes, coconuts, bananas and pineapples which grow in  plenty in these islands. e)___ we see that the kinds of food that people at vary throughout the world.

78.

becausethatwhateverin factbutalthoughwho

Those a)___ learn nothing in life are set down as failures, b)___ they have neglected little tings. They may themselves consider c)___ the world has gone against them, d)___ they have been their own enemies. There has long been a popular belief in ‘good luck’. e)__ like many other popular nations it is gradually giving way. 

79.

finallyneverthelessfor examplein the same waythereforefirstlysecondly

The paragraph and the essay are different from each other. a) _____ there are some similarities between them. b)___ the paragraph has a topic sentence to introduce the main idea. c)___ it has a number of sentences in the middle to develop that main idea. d)__ there is a concluding sentence in it bring the main idea to a close. e)___ the essay also consists of a beginning, a middle vide an end. 

80.

moreoverfirstfor examplefinallynextthenso

Mr. Latif is very friendly and generous a)___ though he is our boss, he behaves with us like an innocent child. b)___ , he is not proud of his position. Everyday he does several nice things as soon as he enters the Teacher Common Room. c)___, he shakes hands with is colleagues. d)___ he embraces them with cordiality e)___ he entertains them to tea.

81.

sincein factforalthoughso thatyetwhenhowever

The canteen on the east of our college is an added attraction for us. a)___ we can satisfy our hunger. There are some benches and chairs for the students b)___ they sit there. c)___ many students go there just to have talks with friends. Some students are seen playing d)— they find a gap period in the routine. We enjoy here, e)___ we have to follow the rules strictly.

82.

asas a resultifelsestillactuallyhowever

Illiteracy is a curse of our country. a)___ we are responsible for our being illiterate. b)___ our government has taken steps to remove illiteracy from the country Illiteracy causes great harm to us. c)___ we do not understand, we cannot take steps to improve our poor condition, d)__ we are lagging behind. We are dependent on foreign grants. e)___ we are not aware of the importance of literacy, we will not be able to change our lot So we should be careful of the fact from now on.

83.

can evenby wrappingnot onlyby holdingbut alsowithto pick up

An elephant does many things with its trunk. It a)___ can smell, feel and pick up things with its trunk b)__ can uproot trees with its trunk. They can defined themselves by wrapping their trunks around their enemies and dashing them to the ground. But they use their trunk c)__ peanuts, too d)___ brush taught to seep e)___ a broom in its trunks, an elephant can sweep a floor clean to sawdust.

84.

evenandbesidesbutnorthatwhen

The moon is a very familiar figure to all of us. She awakens a feeling of love and tenderness in our heart, a)___ the infant in arm stretches out its hand to grab the moon, b)___ her appeal is not confined to only children. The full moon has always played an important role in literature c)___ science has different things to tell about the moon, d)__ on a clear night, we look out on the magic of moon light, it is often difficult for us to think e)__ the moon is shining in browed feathers.

85.

sowhilethatandso thatsimilarlybesides

It is true that new friends are compared to silver and the old friends to gold, a)___ it is a common knowledge b)___ gold is more valuable metal c)___ silver, d)__ old friends are more important than new ones, e)__ old friends have been tried but new ones have not been put to any test yet.

86.

butin the first placebesidessecondlyfinallyat the endtherefore

Almost all countries of the world suffer from the curse of unemployment. a)___ nowhere in the world, this problem is so acute as in our country. There are many reasons behind it. b)__ our country is industrially backward. c)__ our system of education fails to give a student an independent start of life. It has little provision for vocational training. d)___, our students and youths have a false sense of dignity. e)___ they run after jobs only.

87.

howeverwhichthenat alloftenwhenso

a)__ the King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain heard about the plan to soil across the Atlantic, they could not believe him b)___. c)___ they turned him away. Columbus, d)___ did not lose hope. He went to them again. The King and the Queen were e)___ very busy, so they could not help him.

88.

howeverbutagainthoughsinceneverthelessifso

Today, the 13th November, 2008, we are sitting for the test examination. a)___ it is the most important examination in our college life, we have taken good preparation. b)___ it is true that many of our friends are worried of the subject for some obvious reasons. c)___ any student fails to secure the qualifying marks he/she will not be sent up for the HSC examination to be held in 2009. d)___ it is our expectation to secure good marks in the subject. e)___ if she /he can answer well it will be encouraging for her/him and in that case there is very possibility to do good in other subjects.

89.

soorwhobutand`ifwhom

There was once an African king a)___ was very proud. One day an old Negro came to him and said, “All men are servants of one another.” b)___ I am your servant, am I?” asked the king. “Prove it before sunset c)__ I will kill you.” “Very well,” said the Negro. Just then a beggar came to the door. “Let me go and give this poor man something to eat,’ said the Negro. d)___ as he went towards the beggar, his walking stick dropped form his hand and at once the king picked it up e)__ handed it back to the Negro.

90.

soagainbutbesidefinallyhoweveras soon asdespite

The BCS Examination is the only gateway to what is called a gazette post. a)___ other benefits go with the job. b)___ students love their degrees, they plan to take the BCS Examination. c)___, everybody is not allowed to go in for the examination. d)___ a majority of these candidates fail to secure qualifying marks. e)__ the successful candidates are required to go through a psychological test.

91.

who         wheneverin factunlesssomehowwhateverbecause

a)___ a man does, does for his own necessity. He invented motor cars because he wanted to travel quickly. He spent money on medicine b)___ he wanted to remain healthy and he manufactured computer because he would like to make life comfortable. c)___ all necessities persuaded him to get down to take risky ventures. In all cases, the more intense his necessity is, the more efforts he makes to achieve the goal. We eat when we are hungry. Sauce makes food tastier. But one d)___ is hungry, does not need any sauce to make his meal delicious. e)__ he feels hungry; he seems to eat little or nothing. 

92.

as well asfirstlyat lastfortunatelythensoinitially

a)___ the first day of my school come. My father told me to get ready. My mother dressed me in fine clothes and combed my hair. b)__ I touched her feet and went to my father who was waiting for me. The school was not far off from our house. c)___, it took us only fifteen minutes to reach there. My father went with me to the Headmaster who was a grave but good man. He asked my name and a few questions. d)___ I could answer all the questions. So he asked the clerk to admit me into class four. He behaved well with my father e)__ with me.

93.

namelywhichoftenwhenhoweverafterbut

There is a world about learning poetry by heart. Young people a)___ consider this tiresome drudgery, b)__ the learning of poetry had one great advantage over merely reading it; poems that have been learnt become a permanent personal possession. The mind is enriched with a store of beautiful or lofty thoughts and ideas c)___ may be a source of pleasure, comfort or inspiration at times d)__ books are not at hand. Poems selected for learning e)__ should be worthy of the time to be spent on them.

94.

on the contrarybut in contrastratherbutwhereasthough

There are some similarities and differences between the patterns of eating in Britain and that in Bangladesh. a)__ the main meal of the people of Bangladesh is the lunch, b)__ dinner is the main meal of the British. Usually the British have cereal, toast and tea or coffee for the breakfast. c)__, in Bangladesh the people of the rural areas eat rice and urban people eat for their breakfast. d)__ we have got no special meal during a week, on occasions special meals are arranged. In Britain Sunday lunch is the most important meal of the week when a cooked is served at midday instead of in the evening. Before going to bed people in Britain have a hot drink like tea or coffee with biscuits. e)__ people in our country are not in the habit of taking these things before going to bed.

95.

althoughof courseuntilunlessifwhilethat

Hopes and aspiration, desires and dreams are at the root of all progress and development, discovery and invention. a)___ people had no hope or desire, human civilization would be destroyed long, long ago. This hope or desire or dream springs eternal from human breast. b)___, mere hope and aspirations are meaningless c)___ they are translated into reality. d)__ trying to actualize hopes and desires, man often does face numerous odds and disadvantages, danger and risk. It is only optimism e)__ encourages him to launch a new and fresh adventure.

96.

besidessinceso thatasboththatwhichanywaybecause

The importance of English can hardly be exaggerated a)__ it is  a global language. We need to learn it for higher studies b)___ books of almost all faculties of knowledge are written in English. c)__, if we do not know English, we will fail to keep pace with the progressive forces of the  world. d)__ learning and teaching English in Bangladesh suffer serious set- backs e)__ most of the learners are not keen to learn it.

Categories
Education Report Writings

Project Report for Software Engineering Course

Course full name: Software Design Patterns and Analysis. This is my project report for the course CSE327 at my university. I am sharing this for the juniors to get an idea about writing a good report with different details.

Introduction:

With the advent of computer technology and the internet, consumers prefer to conduct their studies or business online. Student Resource Forum is a question and answer website where one can ask questions, answers, suggests and organizes.  Users can collaborate by editing questions and suggesting edits to the answers of others. Users on the Student Resource Forum can comment and write a blog post and like answers.

There are 10 use cases used in this project. These are as follows:

  • 1. Make Question.
  • 2. Do Searching.
  • 3. Give Comment.
  • 4. Upload File.
  • 5. Download File.
  • 6. Add third-party for login.
  • 7. Select Categories.
  • 8. See Profile.
  • 9. See Questions.
  • 10. Complete Registration.

Use Case Diagram

Use case – 1:

Use Case SectionMake Question
Use Case Name  Recent, Most Votes, Most Answers, and Most Views into the website
LevelUser-goal
Primary ActorEnd user
Stakeholders and InterestsEnd user wants to successfully see/vote/answer into the website  
Preconditions1. Website must be properly connected to online. 2. User is using website for first time, he/she will have to sign-up.
Main Success Scenario1. User opens the website. 2. User ask questions. 3. User see recent questions. 4. User answer and vote for questions. 5. User gets most views into the website. 6. User log out successfully from system.
Extensions2a. User cannot ask question, there must be a database management problem and system is showing an error message. 2a.1: User re-enters question.

Use case – 2 :

Use Case Name  Give Comment
LevelUser-goal
Primary ActorEnd user
Stakeholders and InterestsUser wants to successfully comment into the system.  
Preconditions1. System must be properly connected to online. 2. User must be logged in.
Main Success Scenario1. User comment on a question. 2. User get up vote or down vote for comment. 3. User get a score from up vote and down vote. 4. System gives user rank based on vote and score. 5. User successfully log out.
Extensions1a. User cannot comment while database does not process comment and system show error message. 1a.1: User re-enters comment.

 

Use case – 3:

Use Case Name  Do Searching
LevelUser-goal
Primary ActorEnd user
Stakeholders and InterestsEnd user wants to successfully search into the website  
Preconditions1. User must be logged in. 2. System must be properly connected to online.
Main Success Scenario1. User search for needed content. 2. User search for books, questions and answers and successfully get contents from website. 3. User download or upload needed content. 4. User successfully log out from system.
Extensions2a. System database not working, the site will stop serving content properly and this happens while the database’s disk fills up and system show error message. 2b. User do not get searched content, because of the content is not uploaded yet.  

Use case – 4:

Use case NameUpload File
LevelUser-Goal
Primary ActorEnd User
Stakeholders and InterestsEnd user wants the file to be uploaded successfully.
Preconditions1. User should be logged in into website. 2. User should be connected with online.
Success GuaranteeOn successful completion selected file will be uploaded to the database storage.
Main Success scenario1. User selects database storage. 2. User enters valid database storage credentials. 3. System and third party system validates the credentials and displays the files in the database storage. 4. User clicks on the upload function on the toolbar. 5. User selects file to be uploaded. 6. System uploads selected file to the database storage and updates list.
Extensions                  3a. system displays an error message for Invalid credentials. 5a. System unable to get file name and file size, it displays error message.  

Use case – 5:

Use case NameDownload File
Level User-Goal
Primary ActorEnd User
Stakeholders and InterestsEnd user wants the file to be download successfully.
Preconditions1. Website should be properly connected to online. 2. User should be logged in.
Success GuaranteeOn successful completion selected file will be download.
Main Success scenario1. User selects database storage. 2. User enters valid database storage credentials. 3. System and third party system validates the credentials and displays the files in the database storage. 4. User clicks on the download function on the website. 5. User selects file to be download. 6. System download selected file.
Extensions                  3a. system displays an error message for Invalid credentials. 5a. System unable to get file name and file size, it displays error message.  

Use case – 6:

Use case NameAdd third-party for login
LevelUser-Goal
Primary ActorEnd User
Stakeholders and InterestsEnd user wants to connect with website easily through Gmail/Facebook
PreconditionsUser should have online connection.
Success GuaranteeOn successful completion user will log in into website account.
Main Success scenario1. User selects Gmail/Facebook function. 2. Gmail/Facebook login option comes. 3. User login into Gmail/Facebook account. 4. User than logged in into website account through third party information.
Extensions                  3a. User are not connected with Gmail/Facebook and system displays an error message. 3b. System cannot verify user name and password. 3b.1: User re-enters the user name and password.

Use case – 7:

Use Case Name  Select categories
LevelUser-goal
Primary ActorEnd user
Stakeholders and InterestsEnd user wants to search different subject and option.  
Preconditions1. User have to be logged in into website account. 2. User have to connect with online.
Success GuaranteeUser will successfully explore different categories.
Main Success Scenario1. User selects categories function. 2. User selects option of his or her choice. 3. User collect needed knowledge. 4. User upload or download different content in different categories. 5. User successfully log out from website.
Extensions2a. User do not get his needed content, because the content is not uploaded yet in that category. 2b. System is crush because of overload of user and error message will be shown.

 

Use case – 8:

Use Case Name  See Profile
LevelUser-goal
Primary ActorEnd user
Stakeholders and InterestsUser wants to see other user’s wall, all questions, all answer, comments, gave out, receive and score.  
Preconditions1. User have to be logged in into website account. 2. User have to be connected with online.
Success GuaranteeUser will be see what other user’s opinions, questions and answer.
Main Success Scenario1. User selects user function. 2. User selects another user’s profile. 3. User see other user’s wall, question, answer, comments, up vote, down vote and score. 4. User leave successfully from another user’s profile.
Extensions   2a. User won’t able to visit another user’s account due to database connection problem. 2a.1: User re-click another user profile option.

Use case – 9:

Use Case Name  See Questions
LevelUser-goal
Primary ActorEnd user
Stakeholders and InterestsUser wants to see other user’s answer, up vote, down vote and tag.  
Preconditions1. User have to be logged in into website account. 2. User have to be connected with online.
Success GuaranteeUser will be see what other user’s questions and answer.
Main Success Scenario1. User selects unanswered function. 2. User can see unanswered question, related up vote, down vote, tagged link and tagged person. 3. User can answer of questions, give comments, also can give up vote, down vote and tag.
Extensions   3a. System detects failure to communicate with database system services and show error message.  

Use case – 10:

Use Case Name  Complete Registration
LevelUser-goal
Primary ActorEnd user
Stakeholders and InterestsUser wants to sign up at website for open an account.  
Preconditions1. User have to be connected with online. 2. User have to provide Gmail account or Facebook account to open an account.
Success GuaranteeUser will be successfully log in into account.
Main Success Scenario1. User select user name for website. 2. User provide email account or Facebook account. 3. User verify link that is sent from website to Gmail account. 4. User log in into website and see website content. 5. User log out from website.
Extensions   3a. User will get error message if registration information is not right. 3a.1: User re-enters registration information.

Domain Model Diagram:

Class Diagram:

Sequence Diagram:

Technologies Used:

  • Framework
  • XAMPP Control panel
  • PHP (Laravel Framework)
  • GitHub
  • Bootstrap (Less)
  • MySQL (Database)
  • HTML5
  • CSS3.

Technical Challenges:

o   We had issues while integrating PHPmyadmin database management.

Project GitHub Repository Link:

https://github.com/arnobtanjim/student-resouce-forum

1St Iteration Presentation Link (Online):

https://prezi.com/gy4oadxqm2i0/student-resource-forum

Here, our group has also hosted the site online in a free domain hosting site. The link is: http://studentrf.rf.gd

Project Snapshots:

Conclusion:

Student Resource Forum website’s advantages:

  • This website is an open-source and free.
  • Suitable for sharing studying materials.
  • Suitable for easy access and get materials.
  • Easy upload /Download features of any course materials.
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Education Public Speech

Persuasive Speech Writing

Children Should/Shouldn’t Have a Mobile Phone above 16 Years Old?

(Hello, everyone! This is Tanjim. Peace and blessings be upon you. My topic is ‘Should children should use mobile phones above 16 years old?’ Thank you, sir, for selecting this topic.)

Introduction

Attention Getter: Who doesn’t have a cell phone these days? Please, raise your voice. The amazing thing about cell phones is that they are no longer just used for calling or texting. They have become an indispensable multi-tool wonder. Today’s cell phone is cutting-edge technology at your fingertips. With this in mind, should students under 16 years old be permitted to use cell phones?

Speaker Credibility: I believe they should not just be permitted to use cell phones, they should be required to use them. Cell phones don’t just allow students to stay connected with family and friends, they are also an excellent learning resource, and they encourage the responsible use of
technology. I have younger cousins who study in school and have a cell phone. And they used it to gain knowledge, watching educational videos from Robi-10minutes schools and the Udvash lecture series. It helps them to prepare their lessons and stay connected to new technology. Sometimes, they use cell phones to study Geography by using google map.

Listener Relevance: Do you know? In developed counties like the UK, the USA, Germany, the percentage of children using a cell phone are nearly 69%, surveyed by GSMA. Furthermore, 40% of US parents let their kids have their phones by the age of 10 as they believe, it will develop children’s mental growth. On the other side, some study says kids should be limited to using cell phones, but the younger School going boy should use it to communicate with parents, teachers, and gain knowledge from the new era of technology.

Thesis Statement: Cell phones should be allowed for students above 16 years old mainly for these three reasons. Stay in touch with family and friends, it is a fabulous learning resource, and it encourages the responsible use of technology.

Body:

To begin with, cell phones make it possible for students to stay in touch with family and friends. Imagine a child in the city with his/her parents. They have no mobile phone. Suddenly, they end up lost. They are alone in the vast, populated, extremely busy city, with no way of calling their parents for help. Imagine if that poor, helpless, lost child was you. How would you feel? How would your parents feel? Children can call home and ask a family member to bring them a forgotten assignment or lunch money or to come to pick them up if they are sick. Also, cell phones allow parents to keep track of their children’s whereabouts before, during, and after school. And, of course, there’s always the possibility of a student needing to contact a parent because of a dangerous situation. Thus, having a cell phone is like having a guardian angel. Children can also connect with friends, but not just because it’s a fun thing to do; the teacher can ask others to text or email their friends when they are absent to let them know what’s going on in class and to inform them of any homework. When used responsibly, a cell phone can be an excellent communication tool.

Also, cell phones – especially smartphones – are a fabulous learning resource. Children can use tools such as the calculator, the map finder, and the calendar and it will make them a good student. I’ve seen students used a cell phone in Maths and Geography and to keep track of homework. Nowadays, science teacher lets students use their smartphones to do research when they are doing group work or working on a project. For example, when they are studying ecology they can research local jobs having to do with protecting the environment. Plus there are lots of great learning websites – including essay-writing websites – they can use to supplement for self-learning. Cell phones are a quick and easy way to incorporate technology into the classroom.

Finally, cell phones encourage the responsible use of technology. Children can learn when and how to use their cell phones to enhance their learning. They will become more independent in their work and more motivated to learn. Children like being allowed to make choices, and they understand the consequences. In school, if a student is texting when he/she should be paying attention to the teacher, the teacher should take the cell phone temporarily away. That’s no big deal. Before a test, all cell phones should be placed on the teacher’s desk. Again, it’s no big deal. By allowing the use of cell phones, students will feel like they are being treated as responsible young adults, and they will appreciate that. If parents, teachers are patient, understanding, and consistent, children will surely become responsible users of technology.

Conclusion

To sum up, people who oppose the use of cell phones above 16 years old, do it because of the disruptions and distractions cell phones can cause. But we must accept that we live in a world of technology and that cell phones are an important and very useful part of that world. We miss out if we fail to take advantage of the educational power of the cell phone. All in all, cell phones improve communication, provide learning resources, and encourage appropriate use of technology. Teachers and administrators must find ways to incorporate this excellent multi-tool in our schools. New technologies emerged to improve our life quality, from the knowledge they can fulfill their designated purpose. As you’ve learned from this speech, it’s not that difficult. Let’s make the most of the day and age we are living in!