Categories
Education Report Writings Tech

Technical Report Sample

This is a technical report sample. Here is the details report on a deep learning-based project collected from https://github.com. This is not the main project but it is a standard template for showing your project report. You can edit as you want it. Thank you.

Technical Report Sample on ANN:

Abstract

With the help of sensor data collected from a mobile or other devices, a neural network can guess patterns on the data and predict any activity anyone done. Today, it is one of the most demanding sites of artificial intelligence. Moreover, collecting human activity data through sensors, one can implement it to a bot. Raw data collected from different sensors of a mobile, smartwatch and other sensors active device enhance the classification of human activities with machine learning algorithms. In this paper, I observed a model on its mile activity recognition, usually the motion sensors, such as accelerometer and gyroscope. The performance of the model is great; however, I have tried to tune the model and observed the changes one by one. Hence, the model validation accuracy is 97.98 % and precision is 95%. This was achieved from the data learning from a cellphone attached to the waist. LSTM model has been used for this purpose to learn the sequence of data.

Table of Contents

Abstract

Table of Contents

List of Figures

1 Introduction

2       Background

3       Datasets

4       Methodology

5       Results and discussion

6       Conclusions and recommendations

7       Acknowledgments

8       References.

Appendix A: Place the title of appendix here

List of Figures

1.            Different Activity Related Sensor Data                    

2.            Model Summary                                                              

3.            Model Accuracy                                                               

4.            Model loss                                                                         

1       Introduction

Artificial Neural Network with a validation accuracy of 97.98 % and a precision of 95% was achieved from the data to learn (as a cellphone attached on the waist) to recognize the type of activity that the user is doing. My work is inspired by Guillaume-chevalier/LSTM-Human-Activity-Recognition but he used RNN-LSTM to recognize the activity whereas I used ANN for the same. And had achieved a better confusion matrix as well as the validation accuracy than the RNN-LSTM. Bidirectional LSTM on the other hand gave around 94 % but which is still less. The above VALIDATION ACCURACY is also best on KAGGLE. The approach might be a little different.

2       Background

There are much research has been done over the years. I review some of them for learning the background of my task.

Paniagua et al. describe different sensors like accelerometer, magnetic field, and air pressure meter equipped by mobile, which can help in the operation of the evoking context of the user like location, situation, etc. Moreover, processing the evoked sensor data is generally a resource-hungry task, which can be uploaded to the public cloud storage from mobile devices. This paper specifically targets at evoking useful information from the accelerometer sensor data. The paper defines the usages of parallel computing using Map Reduce on the cloud for training and recognizing human activities based on machine learning classifiers that can scale in performance and accuracy easily. The sensor data is collected from the mobile devices, uploaded to the cloud and processed using different classification algorithms such as Iterative Dichotomizer 3, Naive Bayes Classifier, and K-Nearest-Neighbors. The guessed activities can be used in mobile applications like this paper model Zompopo that utilizes the data in creating an intelligent calendar [1].

On the other hand, human exercises are inalienably interpretation invariant and various levels. Human action acknowledgment (HAR), a field that has earned a great deal of consideration as of late because of its appeal in different application spaces, utilizes time-arrangement sensor information to construe exercises. In this paper, a profound convolutional neural system (convnet) is proposed to perform productive and powerful HAR utilizing cell phone sensors by abusing the innate attributes of exercises and 1D time-arrangement signals, simultaneously giving an approach to naturally and information adaptively remove vigorous highlights from crude information. Analyses show that convnets to sure determine applicable and progressively complex highlights with each extra layer, even though the distinction of highlight multifaceted nature level abatements with each extra layer.

Moreover, A more extensive time length of transient nearby connection can be abused (1 × 9-1 × 14) and a low pooling size (1 × 2-1 × 3) is demonstrated to be useful. Convnets likewise accomplished a practically ideal order on moving exercises, particularly fundamentally the same as ones that were recently seen to be extremely hard to characterize. In conclusion, convnets beat other best in class information-digging strategies in HAR for the benchmark dataset gathered from 30 volunteer subjects, accomplishing a general presentation of 94.79% on the test set with crude sensor information, and 95.75% with extra data of worldly quick Fourier change of the HAR informational index [2].

3       Dataset

The mobile sensor signals such as accelerometer and gyroscope were pre-processed by using noise filters and then crated samples in fixed-width sliding windows of 2.56 sec and 50% overlap. The mobile sensor acceleration signal having gravitational and body motion components were separated using a Butterworth low-pass filter into body acceleration and gravity. The G-force is adopted to have only low-frequency components, whereas a filter with 0.3 Hz cutoff frequency has been used. From each window, a vector of features was obtained by computing variables from the time and frequency domain [3].

Figure 1: Different Activity Related Sensor Data

View More Technical Report Sample on ANN or Software Engineering Here!

4       Methodology

For feature selection, “extra tree classifier has been used with and I1 selection, but the results were somewhat better with all features only when manually tune the hyperparameters of the model to its almost utmost level which took some time. Though having fewer features will also take less time to train, but in this case, manual selection of features regarding circumstance can’t be done and the other techniques” [4].

The model design is as well as could be expected and concocted after continued tuning and changes in network architecture. By taking exceptional consideration of learning rate and clump size to which the model is touchy and need to overcharge them, to get a standout amongst another outcome in front. Here is the model summary:

Figure 2: Model Summary

In this sequential model 1st layer is a dense layer having an activation layer as Rectified Linear Unit (Relu). After the 2nd layer, batch normalization is used. The final layer uses sigmoid as activation fiction as the loss needs to be minimized. Adam optimizer has been used. In particular, some of the layers I have changed to see the changes and add other layers as well. The layer has in total of 80k+ parameters.

View More technical report sample on ANN or Other Course Here!

5       Results and discussion

I have tune hyperparameters such as epoch, batch size, etc. Batch size = 256 and epoch = 22 has been given as it is achieving good accuracy.

Technical Report Sample; ANN: model-accuracy

Figure 3: Model accuracy

This curve shows that both the train and test accuracy is good. After 22 epoch, the loss is .03, accuracy is 98.9%, validation loss is 0.06, and validation accuracy is 97.3% which is a great result indeed.

Technical Report Sample on ANN - Model loss
Technical Report Sample; ANN

Figure 4: Model loss

The pictures show there is no over-fitting. The model is efficient in results.

6       Conclusions and recommendations

Mobile Sensor data can play a revolutionary role, additionally, with the neural network, it can be helpful to detach any unexpected activity. Alike the apple smartwatch is the best example of a device. Its model is also trained using this type of sequence learning. Though my tuning does not any special effects on accurse and loss, I have learned all those practices. By tuning the hyperparameters, the model’s validation accuracy can be increased from 97.98% to 99% and precision can be increased from 95% to 97%.

7       Acknowledgments on Technical Report Sample on ANN

The main implementation of codes collected from Kaggle.com and the dataset is collected from UCI machinery. I owe nothing, I have just experimented and try to implement a sequence learning model such as LSTM.

8       References 

[1]H. F. S. N. S. Carlos Paniagua∗, “Mobile Sensor Data Classification for Human Activity Recognition,” Elsevier, The 9th International Conference on Mobile Web Information Systems (MobiWIS 2012), p. 585 – 592, 2012.
[2]S.-B. C. Charissa Ann Ronao, “Human activity recognition with smartphone sensors using deep learning neural networks,” Expert Systems with Applications, p. 59, 2016.
[3]A. G. L. O. X. P. a. J. L. R.-O. Davide Anguita, “Human Activity Recognition Using Smartphones Data Set,” 21th European Symposium on Artificial Neural Networks, Computational Intelligence and Machine Learning, ESANN 2013., Bruges, Belgium 24-26 April 2013. .
[4]deadskull7, “Human-Activity-Recognition-with-Neural-Network-using-Gyroscopic-and-Accelerometer-variables,” GitHub, [Online]. Available: https://github.com/deadskull7/Human-Activity-Recognition-with-Neural-Network-using-Gyroscopic-and-Accelerometer-variables.

Appendix A: Technical Report Sample

This is a technical report sample on ANN. Thank You for Reading!

Categories
Tech

H-Bridge-motor-driver-circuit

intro:

What is H-bridge-motor-driver?

An H bridge is an electronic circuit that enables a voltage to be applied across a load in opposite direction. These circuits are often used in robotics and other applications to allow DC motors to run forwards or backwards.

What is the purpose of it ?

A motor driver is a little current amplifier, the function of motor drivers is to take a low-current control signal and then turn it into a higher-current signal that can drive a motor.

Designing methods & COMPONENTS

•4 Resistors (2-100 ohms & 2-K ohms)

•6BJT – 2PNP (BC547) & 4NPN (BC557)

•1- 0.1nF capacitor

•1- 100uH inductor

•1 DC 9V motor

• 12V battery

Circuit diagram & Pspice simulation

Wiring Diagram Practical
Circuit Diagram
PsPice Simulation

  How does it works?

• Here, we have used very low inductor and capacitor in the circuit because a good amount of load required to start the motor, at that time circuit loses control of its load for a very few second and occur down to the voltage level. For getting rid of it, we have implemented that load idea. The capacitor at that time discharges and inductor recovers the load of the circuit, and that’s how the instant voltage drop can be minimized.

• For connection ‘A’ the motor will cycle as the clock wise position, and for ‘B’ part connection it will cycle as the anti-clock wise position.

• We have used power BJT in the circuit implementation as the power BJT is more sufficient for that purpose.

Cost & Benefits of it:

•We can use it to build Line-follower.

•We can also use it the switching circuit.

•It can be used to amplify current from high voltage.

•It can minimize the extra cost of buying Arduino or IC.

•It is a very cheap cost implementation circuit.

•The total cost of our circuit is only 100 taka (having 10tk for 6BJT, 30tk for wire, 2tk for resistor, 2tk for capacitor & inductor, 50tk for breadboard)

Categories
Tech

CPU Info Checker with Fan Speed Controlling

Category: Project Proposal

Topic: CPU Info Checker with Fan Speed Controlling

Subject: CSE323 – Operating System Concepts

In this Arduino based project, we are going to control DC fan speed according to the room temperature and show these parameter changes on a 16×2 LCD display. It is accomplished by the data communications between Arduino, LCD, DHT11 sensor Module and DC fan that is controlled by using PWM. PWM is a technique by using which we can control voltage.

Circuit Components

  1. Arduino UNO
  2. DHT11 sensor
  3. DC Fan
  4. 2n2222 transistor
  5. 9 volt battery
  6. 16×2 LCD
  7. 1K resistor
  8. Connecting wires
  9. LED Light

Description:

This project consists of three sections. One senses the temperature by using humidity and temperature sensor namely DHT11. Second section reads the dht11 sensor module’s output and extracts temperature value into a suitable number in Celsius scale and control the fan speed by using PWM. And last part of system shows humidity and temperature on LCD and Fan driver.

Fan speed and PWM values and duty cycles values that we are going to use is showing in given table:

TemperatureDuty CyclePWM ValueFan Speed
Less 260%0Off
2620 %5120%
2740%10240%
2860%15360%
2980%20480%
Greater 29100%255100%
Fan Speed & PWM Values

Fan speed control technique:

 A low-frequency pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal, usually in the range of about 30Hz, whose duty cycle is varied to adjust the fan’s speed is used. An inexpensive, single, small pass transistor can be used here. It is efficient because the pass transistor is used as a switch.

One disadvantage of this approach, however, is that it can make the fan noisy because of the pulsed nature of the signal. The PWM waveform’s sharp edges cause the fan’s mechanical structure to move (like a badly-designed loudspeaker), which can easily be audible.

Circuit Diagram:

We will implement that circuit and add some extra features & sensors that will help to check proper info of CPU usage.

Fig. : Circuit diagram of the temperature-based fan speed control and monitoring CPU usage using Arduino

Categories
Programming Tech

Fractional Knapsack Problem – Programming Solution

Fractional Knapsack Problem Question:

You are required to implement the fractional knapsack problem using a programming language of your own choice. You are going to take the number of items, their weights, volume and costs 5 from the user as well as the knapsack capacity and determine the maximum value that can be 6 taken. Also, print out the items and its quantities that can be taken.

Background:

An efficient solution is to use Greedy approach. The basic idea of the greedy approach is to calculate the ratio value/weight for each item and sort the item on basis of this ratio. Then take the item with the highest ratio and add them until we can’t add the next item as a whole and at the end add the next item as much as we can. Which will always be the optimal solution to this problem.

A simple code with our own comparison function can be written as follows, please see sort function more closely, the third argument to sort function is our comparison function which sorts the item according to value/weight ratio in non-decreasing order.
After sorting we need to loop over these items and add them in our knapsack satisfying above-mentioned criteria.

A greedy algorithm has five components:

  1. A set of candidates, from which to create solutions.
  2. A selection function, to select the best candidate to add to the solution.
  3. A feasible function is used to decide if a candidate can be used to build a solution.
  4. An objective function, fixing the value of a solution or an incomplete solution.
  5. An evaluation function, indicating when you find a complete solution.

Solution:

Output:Execution of Fractional Knapsack Problem

Execution - Fractional Knapsack Problem

View More samples: Here!

There are two critical components of greedy decisions:

  1. Way of greedy selection. You can select which solution is best at present and then solve the subproblem arising from making the last selection. The selection of greedy algorithms may depend on previous selections. But it cannot depend on any future selection or depending on the solutions of subproblems. The algorithm evolves in a way that makes selections in a loop, at the same time shrinking the given problem to smaller subproblems.
  2. Optimal substructure. You perform the optimal substructure for a problem if the optimal solution of this problem contains optimal solutions to its subproblems.

Github: implementation

Reference:

  • https://www.guru99.com/fractional-knapsack-problem-greedy.html
  • https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/fractional-knapsack-problem